The modern society of electronic technology is a consequence involving
the curiosity, persistence, and obstenacy inherent to the mankind
as in a perennial search for a better way of life led men with inventive
mind to deveolp many inventions and innovations. Among them the
most representative ones are:
Alexander Gaham Bell
He electrified de human voice and by putting the spoken word on
wires he invented the telephone. Bell was a Scotsman and was educated
in the University of Edinburgh where he was born in April 3, 1847.
In 1870 he immigrated to Canada. Following his father’s interest
for teaching deaft-mute, in 1872 he became professor of vocal physiology
at Boston University. He was deeply interested in the mechanics
of speech, which led him into to the first experiments to develop
an apparatus for the electrical transmission of the spoken words.
In March 7, 1786, he was gratned with the patent nº 174,465
for the right of on the invention of the telephone. On a tour at
the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, the eperor of Brazil Dom
Pedro Alcantara stopped to watch a demonstration of the telephone
made by Bell, which was considered the first official recognation
of the device.
French, he was born in October 1st, 1842 in Fabrezan. A man who
enjoyed the strife of life was poet, chemist, and painter. In April
1877 he presented to the French Academy of Sicence his project for
a sound reproducer whose main conception was similar to the Edison
phonograph. Therefore even considering his efforts he had any success
to finalize his project as in February 1878 Edison was granted with
the patent for the phonograph.
Was the main artisan for the development of the disc using the lateral
cut phonograph disc method was born in 1851 in Hannover, Germany.
In 1870 he sailed to the USA where he tried several jobs. As a self
made man he installed a small laboratory where he conducted experiment
in the original telephone device invented by Bell. In 1883, after
many experiments based in the recording forerunners: Martinville,
Cros and Bell-Tainter, he finally invented the foundation of the
principle for recording the natural sound using the lateral modulation
over a flat disc.
Hermann L. F. Von Helmholtz
Philosopher and physicist. He was born in August 31st 1821 in Potsdam,
Germany. His parents were poor and turned him to study Medicine
when he became associat in the Berlin Anatomical Museum. Later on
he was assigned as professor of Physics at the University of Berlin
when he was distinguished in Optics and Acoustics.
In 1836 he published his famous monograph: “Sensation of Tone”
which was considered the most important work on Acoustics of the
His researches were of utmost importance for the development to
the theory of the propagation of electromagnetic waves, which fascinated
his pupil Heinrich Hertz. Von Helmholtz has passed way in September
8, 1894 in Charlottenburg, Germany.
Leon Scott de Martinville
he was born in 1817 and was the inventor of the phonautograph, a
crude machine whose operational principle was the forerunner of
the diaphragm. He died poor and unknown in April 16, 1879 in Paris,
Michael Idvorsky Pupin
physicist and inventor of Serb ancestry immigrate to the USA in
1873. He was graduated from Columbia University in 1883 when he
was appointed professor of Mathematics and Physics. In the field
of Physics his studies led him to discovery the secondary X-Rays
emission in 1892.
Since he was so motivated by his researches covered the wide field
of telegraph, telephone and wireless Pupin’s crowning triumph
was the invention of the telephone repeater as known as the Pupin
coil, which greatly extended long-distance telephone connections.
Michael Pupin passed way in March 12, 1935 in New York City, USA.
Mathematician, he was born in Smiljan, Serbia in July 10, 1857. He
studied mathematics, Physics and Mechanics at Gratz Polytechnic School
and subsequently had two years at the University of Prague, where
he studied Philosophy. During his course at Gratz he had been in touch
with the original electrical dynamo invented by Z.T.Grammes when he
proposed several technical modifications in order to simply the machine.
In 1884 he immigrated to the USA when he developed innovations as
the famous Tesla’s coil and several types of electrical motors
for operation in alternate current.
|Fig. 360 - The Tesla coil.
In 1895 he invented a method for generating electricity using alternating
current for transmission over long distances. He died at the age of
86 in January 7, 1943 in New York City, USA. Fig 360
Samuel Finley Breese Morse
American inventor and artist. He was born in April 27, 1791 in Charlestown,
Massachusetts, and USA. Morse was graduated from Yale University
in 1810 and he traveled to England to study arts. In 1825 he began
work as professor of the Literature and Arts of Design at the University
of the City of New York. In 1835 he built his first electrical telegraph
instrument and transmitted messages from a distance of 500 mm based
in a code comprising dash and dots. 30 years later after his first
transmission the telegraph sounders that ticked on April 2, 1872,
tapped sad news Samuel Morse had passed way.
Thomaz Alva Edison
|Fig. 361 - Thomaz Alva Edison.
Was born in February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio, USA. Since his teens
he had a great interest for science, mainly Chemistry. He was employed
in the Grand Trunk railroad when he obtained the newspaper concession
to sell newspaper on the trains. That enterprise supplied him funds
for his first experimental works in his small home laboratory. In
1862, Edison became telegraph operator at the Port Huron railroad
station, Michigan and in 1864 he invented the Duplex telegraph, which
allows two-way messages simultaneously in just on wire transmission
line. In the next years Edison worked as consultant engineer in several
telegraphic companies when he sold several of his inventions.
As a famous man in 1870 he founded his laboratory in a place 40 km
far away from New York known as Menlo Park. In October 18, 1931, all
the light in America were turned off in a homage to the inventor of
so many inventions and innovations, which among them the most famous
ones are: the incandescent light, the phonograph and the mimeograph.
Englishman, distinguished for intelligence and large universal culture.
He was born in Milverton, England in 1773. Through his experiments
he was the forerunner to reproduce the mechanical vibrations of
a sound body. Later on other researchers as the German Weber and
the French Lissajoux improved his pioneering work. Young died in
Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen
he was born in Lennep in 1845. For his discovery of the X-rays he
was award with the first Nobel Prize of Physics in 1901. Roentgen
was interested in other several scientific fields such as: piezo-electricity,
polarized light electromagnetic rotation conductivity and heating
in crystal. He died in February 10, 1923.