8.6.1.3 - AN OVERVIEW ON THE TYPES OF MACHINE-ASSISTED ENCRYPTION







Machine-assisted encryption, SIGABA, known as ECM Mark II or M-134 converter also. It was developed for operation by the US army and navy during WWII and was used until early fifties. Like many machines of the era it used an electromechanical system of rotors in order to encipher messages.

Courtesy: National Security Agency.

 

 

 

Portable machine-assisted encryption, ENIGMA, was used commercially from the early 1920s on, and was adopted by the military and governmental services all over the world. Like similar machines it used an electromechanical system of rotors for messages encryption and decryption. It was made in a variety of different models whose most famous and well-known is the one used by the German armed forces. In the enclosed photograph the details of one of such models, used by the German army, shows the plugboard, the lamps, the keyboard, and finger-wheels of the three-rotors emerging from the inner lid.
Courtesy: Antonio Fucci collection.

 







Close-up fo the plugboard used in the Portable machine-assisted encryption, ENIGMA.

Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection.


 

 

 





Machine-assisted encryption, FIALKA, used by the Russian intelligence service during the cold war days. FIALKA means violet in Russian and it consists of an encrypted assisted electromechanical device comprising 10 rotors labeled with the Cyrillic characters provided with 30 points contacts instead of the usually 26 as found in similar apparatus operating with the Latin alphabet.
Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection


 

 





Machine-assisted encryption, NEMA an acronym from German meaning: NEeu Maschine, or new machine. It is known as T-D (Tasten-Druecker-Maschine) also, or a keystroke machine. In the reality it is an electromechanical machine-assisted encryption provided with 10 coding discs developed during the WWII by captain Arthur Alder for operation in the Swiss army in order to replace the older ENIGMA model K.
Basically it consists of 10 discs, of which four are electric operated and so provided with the classical 26 contacts.

Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection

 

 

 








Close-up showing the cypher discs used in the NEMA Machine-assisted encryption.

Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection.

 

 

 





Electromechanical encryption device model AN/GRA-71 made in the USA circa 1964. It allows a message to be recorded onto magnetic tape, then subsequently played back to key a transmitter at a rate of 300 word per minute.

Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection.

 

 

 

 

 



Exploited view of the encryption device model AN/ GRA-71 showing its parts. In the left corner the coding system that in reality is a kind of Vigènere table.

Courtesy: Antonio Fucci Collection.

 

 

 

 

 









Machine-assisted encryption, model TRC-785 made in France circa 1970.

Courtesy: Antonio Fuci Collection.